The Center for Resilient Landscapes is designed to be a collaborative research and learning community providing the opportunity for students, faculty, and scientists to work together on important issues of environmental sustainability. The Center will facilitate communication and collaboration so that these groups can match talent with need and complement each other’s research capacity to produce new work.
The following are examples of projects underway in partnership with the Center for Resilient Landscapes and the Rutgers Urban Forestry Program:
Dr. Nazia Arbab is working as a post-doctoral associate in the Center for Resilient Landscapes. Dr. Arbab holds an M.S. in Applied Sociology from the University of Texas at Dallas and a Ph.D. in Natural Resource Economics from West Virginia University. She completed her dissertation in December 2014, titled "Application of a Spatially Explicit, Agent-Based Land Use Conversion Model to Assess Water Quality Outcomes under Buffer Policies."
She is developing an applied socio-ecological simulation model of governance and ecological processes to address current and future challenges in forest resilience in the face of changing human development and climate regimes. She works with faculty and scientists from both organizations to develop a line of research focused on the study of disturbance regimes prevalent in New Jersey and the surrounding region, which include: fire in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), extreme storm events, developmental pressures, pests and invasive species, and changing economies and markets. She also works with project leaders to develop an institutionally-blended, cross-disciplinary team broadly bounded by forest resilience and management practice across the WUI and within the developed and developing landscapes in the urbanized coastal regions of the United States.
The research and collaborative team is expected to have a regional focus and will develop programmatic linkages throughout (but not limited to) the Silas Little Experimental Forest; the USDA-FS Urban Field Station network; the Rutgers campuses in New Brunswick, Newark and Camden; and other regional university programs.
Dr. Arbab presented preliminary findings of her current research project at the International Society for Ecological Modelling Global Conference 2016 in Baltimore, MD, USA. The abstract and modified presentation are linked below:
Impacts and Occurrence of Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in New Jersey:
Dr. Arbab has also published an article using the spatially explicit agent-based modeling method in the Journal of Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy. The article is linked below.
Congratulations to Dr. Arbab as she receives a PEA award at the Agent Based Modeling (ABM 17) Symposium, April 20 - 22 in San Diego, CA. The announcement and poster abstract are linked below.
The Center for Resilient Landscapes hosted its' second annual Fall Symposium on October 6th, 2016 to showcase the Fellowship projects sponsored by the CRL.
Project abstracts and presentations for each of the 2015 and 2016 Fellows are listed below.
USDA Forest Service - Philadelphia Field Station
Advising: Co-advised by Lara Roman & Vince D’Amico
Abstract: Small, fragmented forest environments are common in between the dense human settlements of urban regions, including much of the Eastern United States. The FRAME (Forest Fragments in Managed Ecosystems) is a long-term research program to study urban forest fragments through 38 established sites in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. These sites, though all urban deciduous forests within one region, are widely heterogeneous. The diversity of each site can be documented through careful study of the existing conditions, but it can only be understood by looking to the past. In the roughly 350 years since Europeans settled in the Delaware Valley, land uses have changed with economy, technology and population growth. Working with the hypothesis that historic events leave an ecological legacy, this project assembles the historic land uses of the FRAME sites. The detailed archival research will allow for analysis to link ecological trends and anomalies to historic contexts, providing a richer insight into each forest fragment.
USDA Forest Service - Philadelphia Field Station
Advising: Co-advised by Sarah Low, Jason Henning, and Lara Roman in collaboration with Philadelphia Parks & Recreation staff (Joan Blaustein and Curtis Young).
Abstract: I will describe the beginning of a long term research project on how the Philadelphia urban forests respond to the outbreaks of the invasive insect, the emerald ash borer (EAB). EAB was documented in Philadelphia in the spring of 2016, and is expected to cause 99% mortality of ash trees in forests it invades. The effects of the EAB on the urban forest are expected to be important since ash constitutes 25% of the urban forest canopy in Philadelphia.
This long term study will document vegetation composition and structure before, during, and after EAB attack, allowing us to investigate how multiple factors (soil moisture, distance from infrastructure, and forest management) interact to influence the forest community recovery after the loss of ash trees. Philadelphia Parks and Recreation has been treating some trees across the city with insecticide to preserve them in the face of the EAB invasion. This study, which represents the first year of this long term study, measured vegetation in the canopy, understory, and in the herbaceous layer near treated trees that will survive the invasion and near untreated ash trees that will die. The study therefore documents effects that the death of ash trees is having on the urban forest vegetation.
The results of the first field season demonstrate that the ash groves of the three watershed parks of Philadelphia (Cobbs Creek, the Wissahickon, and the Pennypack) have distinct initial conditions in terms of understory vegetation communities and in terms of potential canopy in a post-ash forest.
USDA Forest Service - Silas Little Experimental Forest
Advising: Michael Gallagher, Dr. Ken Clark, and Dr. Nicholas Skowronski of the USFS, and may require a small amount of additional coordination with external collaborators at University of Edinburgh, West Virginia University, and/or Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Abstract: In recent years, wildfires in the United States have been burning with greater frequency and intensity. This trend is only expected to accelerate with changes in global climate. While wildfires play important roles as disturbance regimes and forest health, they can also threaten both structures and human life – especially in the wildland urban interface (WUI). Estimating forest fuel loading is crucial for estimating wildfire risk, ongoing fire behavior model development, and evaluating treatment effectiveness. Fuel loading is a key factor that regulates fire intensity, as well as rate of spread, during wildfires, and many simulation models of fire behavior require estimates of fuel loading. Further, it is the only factor in fire behavior that fuels managers can influence, yet has high temporal and spatial variability, especially in regions with frequent fires or other disturbances. The current destructive harvest methods used are time consuming and are not, by definition, “repeatable” (as the plot has been harvested to be dried and measured). As it is vitally important to be able to rapidly and accurately assess fuel loading in with a high spatial resolution, I have endeavored to investigate an alternative and technologically sophisticated approach.
While air-born and terrestrial LiDAR has been demonstrated as a useful means of quantifying forest canopy fuels, newer hand held scanning units have since become available, but have not yet been used on forest fuels. One such unit is the FARO Freestyle 3D laser scanner. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness and utility of using a Faro Freestyle 3D hand laser scanner to measure the surface fuel loading in a pine-oak forest. I performed three different tests in order to evaluate the potential for the Faro Freestyle 3D scanner’s use in measuring the fuel loading of surface fuels, which are those fuels that are within two meters above the ground surface. Current remote sensor methods have some difficulties in detecting the structure of a forest in the shrub layer in the first two meters because of noise from the canopy, and uncertainties in determining ground elevation. My work demonstrates that handheld LiDAR units can be used to successfully estimate the biomass of the shrub layer non-destructively in a forest by using Bayesian Regression to compare the amount of pixels scanned by the laser to the biomass of the harvested plots and detect any relationships between the data points. In combination with other LiDAR technologies to estimate canopy fuel loading, this research contributes to much better estimates of forest fuels.
USDA Forest Service - New York City Urban Field Station
Advising: Myla Aronson, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University; Erika Svendsen, Lindsay Campbell and Michelle Johnson, US Forest Service NYC Urban Field Station
Abstract: Environmental and ecological restoration projects are used widely as a means in which to reverse the degradation and damage done to an ecosystem by human activity (Jackson et al. 1995). While the effects on the ecosystem have been widely evaluated (Benayas et al. 2009), there has been little work done to investigate the social impact on the communities these projects take place in, particularly in urban communities. This project investigates the role of the communities in restoration, building upon a current ecological restoration maritime planting experiment in the Jamaica Bay region of New York City. Particularly, we were interested in the role of individual identity, perceptions of restored areas, and environmental identity on community motivations to contribute to restoration projects and valuation of the environment. We developed a 36 item questionnaire with scales of questions on environmental values, identity, views of community, views on restoration, and motivation to contribute to restoration projects. From our initial analysis we see the emergence of unique community or neighborhood identities that may influence individuals’ perceptions, support of, and desire to engage in ecological restoration programs. Additionally, the desire to preserve local biodiversity was not correlated with engagement in ecological restoration programs where as a desire to help and improve the local community was. These results suggest a potential need to reframe how scientists approach and discuss future restoration projects with community members to garner support for these types of programs. Planned follow-up interviews this fall aim to tease apart these findings and investigate the impact and role of framing in this restoration program.
New York City Urban Field Station
Abstract: Recognizing the suite of ecosystem services from urban forest, cities around the world are embarking on efforts to increase green space within urban limits. Tree planting is one area of focus for these efforts. While increasingly common, the ecological understanding of urban afforestation sites is limited and needed to inform design and management strategies. In 2015 a long-term study of an afforestation strategy using urban adapted early successional tree species was integrated into a New York City Million Trees Planting Campaign within the Freshkills Park. The study asks: Can we use pioneer species such as willow and poplar as part of an anthropogenic forest succession program to achieve more rapid canopy closure on urban afforestation sites thereby reducing maintenance costs and allowing for a faster creation of a forest in the city? This presentation will review the design and installation of Freshkills Afforestation study and the series of experiments that have been initiated on the site that aim to describe the impact of different afforestation strategies on planting success, soil carbon, seed dispersal, and forest succession.
Philadelphia Urban Field Station and Newtown Square, PA
working with the Strategic Foresight and Rapid response Group
Abstract: One of the major causes of prolonged power outages, ecological damage, and personal property loss from Middle-Atlantic Hurricanes is from tree fall due to high winds, and Hurricane Sandy in 2012 was no exception in New Jersey. This prompted the US Forest Service to attempt to develop a model aimed at predicting tree damage severity ahead of time before a hurricane makes landfall. Based off of NHC’s HURDAT2 model, the Hurricane Forestry model utilized ‘best track’ forecasts and other National Hurricane Center data to develop a wind map of NJ detailing where the strongest winds may lie, including New Jersey’s unique topographical influences on the wind field. The next step of the project was then to analyze the results of the model output using Hurricane Sandy as a test case and then to compare it to meteorological surface data gathered from the New Jersey Mesonet during Sandy. The resulting model output when compared to the Mesonet data was not unreasonable. After that, additional factors that may significantly contribute to the model’s accuracy were debated and explored for future incorporation into the model, such as forest type, soil type, soil moisture, tree density, topographical exposure, time since last major weather event, etc. (Credit to Jason Cole of the US Forest Service for the development of the model).Presentation
This poster presents the results of a 2014 study of the photosynthetic activity of gray birch trees (Betula populifolia) growing on a brownfield contaminated with heavy metals in Jersey City, New Jersey. Contrary to initial hypotheses little difference was seen when comparing the photosynthetic efficiency – an indicator of stress – of trees growing in high metal load plots and low metal load plots. More surprisingly, the worst performing plot was a stand of birch growing on low metal load soil, suggesting other environmental conditions are influencing the growth of trees at this site.
Extreme fire behavior and increased fire occurrence related to climate change is a key concern for fire managers because of the impacts it can have on public safety and ecosystem services, especially at the wildland-urban interface. This poster describes the ongoing work of Rutgers PhD. student and Forest Service employee Mike Gallagher, which is integrating fuels, meteorology, and remote sensing data from multiple Forest Service collaborations to map fire severity and better understand how it is influenced by weather and fuel loading in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Results of this work will enable fire managers in NJ to enhance effectiveness of treatments and their ability to anticipate catastrophic fire events.